What is Canadian "Controlled VFR"?

Discussion in 'Change to my Frequency...' started by tawood, Oct 26, 2017.

  1. tawood

    tawood Pattern Altitude

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    I'm considering a VFR over flight of Canada next week, something I haven't done since 9/11. I'm brushing up on the procedure for the over flight, and I came across "CVFR", or "Controlled VFR", yet I can't seem to find a clear definition...is it just flight through Class B, Class B through D, or does it even include VFR flight following?
     
  2. mscard88

    mscard88 Touchdown! Greaser!

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  3. tawood

    tawood Pattern Altitude

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    I saw this one...Maybe I'm not reading it right, but this seems to talk about CVFR and "a" use/requirement for it (class B), but not all uses/requirements for it...
     
  4. mscard88

    mscard88 Touchdown! Greaser!

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    Last edited: Oct 26, 2017
  5. EricVKX

    EricVKX Pre-Flight

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  6. tawood

    tawood Pattern Altitude

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    Thanks Eric!
     
  7. luvflyin

    luvflyin Final Approach

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    Seems to me I remember reading once that it was mandatory for VFR flight at night up there.
     
  8. TRocket

    TRocket Line Up and Wait

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    "CVFR" stands for "Canadian Visual Flight Rules"...Duh!! Just means you have to finish all of your radio transmission with "Eh?"
     
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  9. GRG55

    GRG55 Final Approach

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    You remember wrong. The airspace rules do not change between night and day. The pilot qualifications do.
     
    Last edited: Oct 28, 2017
  10. GRG55

    GRG55 Final Approach

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    The confusion about CVFR is most commonly around the airspace in the west. The IFR MEA is quite high over the Rockies. If you are above 12,500 but below the IFR MEA you will not get CVFR clearance.

    A couple of other things to note:
    - If you ask and receive CVFR you'll almost certainly be assigned an IFR altitude even though you are still VFR.
    - If you are westbound VFR over the Rockies and at a high altitude (example 14,500 ASL) you will be too low for CVFR as you are below the MEA. If you stay at that altitude as you go west you will have to secure CVFR as the MEAs drop as the peak terrain drops. It's easy to bust airspace staying in level flight in that situation if you are not paying attention.
     
    Last edited: Oct 28, 2017
  11. luvflyin

    luvflyin Final Approach

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    That must of been it. So IFR rated is required for flying at night?? Or is there some 'in between' night rating?
     
  12. midlifeflyer

    midlifeflyer Final Approach

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    Canada has a night rating as an add on to a PPL. In airplanes, it requires a minimum of 5 hours night dual, 5 hours night solo, and 10 hours instrument dual, including a cross country and multiple night landing requirement.
     
  13. luvflyin

    luvflyin Final Approach

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    Ah Ha. I was scratching my head reading all this stuff about CVFR and the definition of it being in Class B airspace. All controlled airspace up there is Class B from 12500 or the MEA, whichever is higher, up to 18000. Not just upside down wedding cakes around busy airports.
     
  14. iamtheari

    iamtheari Cleared for Takeoff

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    And the big airports are class C, which in Canada require clearance to enter. So... a lot like class B in the USA.

    Do you know if night VFR is allowed in Canada if you are instrument rated or only if you have the night VFR qualifications? Does night IFR also require the night rating?
     
  15. mondtster

    mondtster Pattern Altitude

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    Are you asking about this as an FAA certified pilot in an N registered airplane or are you asking about this as if you are a Canadian pilot in a C registered airplane? I can't quite tell. I've always assumed that the US pilots who are visiting are qualified to fly at night due to our night flight training but I've never confirmed that.

    Regardless of the answer, one thing I can tell you is that there is a lot of unpopulated area up there, thus no lights. I could see it being quite disorienting if you weren't expecting it. I suspect that is at least partially why the CAA requires the additional training.
     
  16. Kritchlow

    Kritchlow Final Approach

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    Well I'm certain you can fly at night in Canada as a US FAA IR pilot.
    Either that, or I've been incorrectly dispatched for the past 20 years.
     
  17. midlifeflyer

    midlifeflyer Final Approach

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    I don’t know. Looking briefly at the reg, my guess is that they are separate ratings, but it is just a guess. Hopefully someone with more familiarity with Canada's rules will be able to answer your question.

    (I am assuming we are talking about the privilege and limitations of a Canadian pilot license, not someone flying a N-numbered aircraft with their US certificate.)
     
  18. GRG55

    GRG55 Final Approach

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    If you are instrument rated you can fly VFR at night. There is no such thing as a night IFR ticket.

    If you hold a VFR only Canadian PPL you need the night rating to fly VFR when the sun goes down. The night VFR is a lot of instrument training. Many VFR PPL holders will do the VFR night rating as a step on the way to IFR.
     
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  19. midlifeflyer

    midlifeflyer Final Approach

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    Thank you.
     
  20. iamtheari

    iamtheari Cleared for Takeoff

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    It's good information either way, but in this case I'm a US pilot with an N-plane. When I read the Transport Canada AIM and some other documents to learn about the rules and airspace in the Great White North, I did not see an exemption to the night VFR restrictions for US pilots. But that only means I did not see one, not that there isn't one.
     
  21. midlifeflyer

    midlifeflyer Final Approach

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    I've never had the need to look at it that deeply, but I'll do my best.

    Think in terms of there being two types of aviation regulations. In the GA world, think of them in terms of (1) rules which apply to the privileges and limitations of pilots and (2) "rules of the road."

    There are ICAO member state agreements. One is the Chicago Convention on international aviation, which provides, among other things, that the "rules of the road" of the country you are in - airspace requirements, speed limits, for example, apply. On the other hand, "certificates of competency and iicenses issued or rendered valid by the contracting State in which the aircraft is registered, shall be recognized as valid by the other contracting States," so long as ICAO minimum standards are met.

    Basically, that means, a US-certificated pilot flying a US-registered aircraft in foreign airspace has all of the privileges and limitations of his or her US pilot certificate. It also explains why a foreign country is free to not recognize US sport pilots or pilots operating under BasicMed - the standards for those don't meet ICAO minimum standards.
     
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  22. Palmpilot

    Palmpilot Touchdown! Greaser!

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    Good explanation!
     
  23. N1120A

    N1120A Pre-takeoff checklist

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    Oddly, YVR is Class B, while YYZ is Class C. I do believe flight through the Toronto Class C TMA is similar to the rules of US Class Cs, though I have no idea what flying around YVR is like. Flight Following is about as freely given in Canada as in the US.
     
  24. iamtheari

    iamtheari Cleared for Takeoff

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    Looking at the chart, the ring around CYVR is made up of ] symbols and says CZ "C" 2500 (2500). The next ring out says CZ "D" 800 (800) CZ "C" ABV 800 (800) TO 2500 (2500). Where are you getting that it's Class B? I want to understand all of this before I do something crazy like fly North. :)
     
  25. N1120A

    N1120A Pre-takeoff checklist

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    I read it on a chart somewhere, but it seems to be C now.
     
  26. ripnet

    ripnet Pre-Flight

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    So just to be clear, since I'm going to Canada next month, my FAA issued PPL (without IR) will allow me to fly my N-number plane at night in Canada?
     
  27. GRG55

    GRG55 Final Approach

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    Only if the conditions are VFR. ;)
     
  28. iamtheari

    iamtheari Cleared for Takeoff

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    This is actually solid advice... VFR in Canada has some restrictions that it doesn't in the USA. For example, I think you can't fly VFR over the top of a layer. You do have to file and activate a VFR flight plan for any cross-country flight over 25 nm. (But you get automatic VFR flight plan opening and closing if you're at a towered airport.) And I think you are supposed to use 126.7 for middle-of-nowhere position reporting to other VFR traffic.
     
  29. GRG55

    GRG55 Final Approach

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    You are correct that 126.7 is the VFR frequency for uncontrolled airspace in Canada.
    A flight plan (and eAPIS) is required to cross the border for arrival into Canada.

    Once in Canada there is not a absolute requirement for filing a flight plan, but it is very common to do so. The alternative is called a "flight note", and that is simply letting a "responsible party" know your plans and contacting them when you arrive destination. That party is responsible for initiating SAR if you go missing. That party can be your spouse, significant other, friend, parent, the dog catcher, whatever. Using the BIL as a responsible party is generally frowned upon. ;)

    Keep in mind that something like 80% of Canadians live within 100 miles of the USA border. You don't have to go very far north and it starts to get pretty sparsely populated and remote.

    For Canadian pilots VFR "on top" is a separate endorsement on their PPL, as is night VFR. But a USA PPL flying an N numbered airplane can exercise the same privileges as if they were in the USA as far as I know.
     
  30. iamtheari

    iamtheari Cleared for Takeoff

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    I didn't know about the endorsement. They sure like to endorse things up there.
     
  31. GRG55

    GRG55 Final Approach

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    The USA is the "land of the free", Canada is the "land of the fee".
     
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  32. Palmpilot

    Palmpilot Touchdown! Greaser!

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    Considering what it costs to land at airports that used to be free, I think the U.S. is catching up to Canada in that regard.