Sorry, this is a long post... I am humbly throwing this out there in hopes maybe if there are some new CFIs coming about it might be helpful. This likely doesn't apply to the experienced polished CFIs as you have learned this through trials and errors of your own or from others gone before you. Background: I instruct business type classes, so I have some experience in teaching. I also have 3 daughters, my oldest has Down's Syndrome. Why is that important? You'll see shortly. Lastly, I'm an engineer by degree - so very often I've found - when I receive instruction (from wife, friend, CFI) - it's taken quite literal. My CFI is relatively new (not a youngster, but not old... just new) as I'm probably his 4th student. I've posted previously about me going through getting my PPL. I'm right at the point of soloing, which is probably coming up in a couple/few flights. It's dawned on me as I've gotten closer to soloing that along the way, a contributing factor (maybe?) to some of my difficulties (particularly landing) has been confusion over communication. I can point to more than a couple/few things that were said in flight that I took very literal and contributed to misunderstandings (and hence frustrations - probably on both our parts). I have multiple examples, I'll just give the latest. We're on short final, we come over the fence/trees, over the threshold, roundout, and I hear "Hold This". In my mind, I need to hold everything stable, stop moving the yoke, just "hold it". I've heard him say this multiple landings but being I don't know what I don't know - I also don't know what to ask. He really meant - hold the sight picture. I understand why, and as I've learned to land, I get the intent. However, to the new guy - I was holding "this" but the "this" I was holding was the wrong "this". I was holding still, thinking - don't move the yoke, and he wanted me to hold the sight picture (thereby applying back pressure AS NEEDED to hold "this" - the sight pictures. Sounds simple enough and I get it now, but it could have saved some frustrations had we had better communication and clarification. I had an opportunity to go up with another CFI (just for pattern work) and having experienced this small (but impactful) communication challenge... during our Preflight briefing - I specifically asked - "Now what am I going to hear from you? What commands will you be telling me, and what do they mean". I didn't know to ask this prior. We went through it and the day went REALLY smoothly - it was a break through day for landings. The whole point being (and we've all done this, me included) - communication is always TWO WAYS. There's a delivery/transmission, and a receiving/understanding. Sometimes we assume the latter happens because in our own head it made total sense. Follow up instructions with some questions for the student to convince yourself everything was understood how it was intended. Which brings me to my oldest daughter with Down's. This has been a HUGE learning curve for us. She's 20yrs old, high functioning, attending a HUGE University here in Florida, living on campus, getting to classes, etc. For the longest time, we would communicate (deliver/transmit) and assume she understood. Many times we throught she understood and we were so far from reality. So now, many many times, we will discuss things with her, and follow up with some additional questions - maybe "do you understand?"... (assume she says 'yes'), then followed up with "explain it to me, what do you think it means". Safe flying!