I am trying to figure out the certifications/ratings that are required for where I want to be, and I have a question about the minimum hours required under part 61. The below was taken from AOPA's website: At least 50 hours of cross-country flight time as pilot in command. At least 10 of these hours must be in airplanes for an instrument-airplane rating. A total of 40 hours of actual or simulated instrument time on the areas of operation listed in 61.65(c). At least 15 hours of instrument flight training from an authorized instructor in the aircraft category for the instrument rating sought. Can the 50 hours of xc flight time as PIC include the xc I have flown under my PPL? Or is this an extra 50 hours on top of that, as in it's starting xc all over again. Similarly, does the total 250 hours required for a CPL include total hours flown from PPL to CPL, or is this 250 in addition to what was flown prior to CPL? I hope this makes sense. Just trying to figure out the minimum I can expect to pay for training. Any advice or guidance on anything or everything is appreciated. The best guidance I received so far is from my dad - don't crash.