Cleveland Wheel Bearing Race Wear

Discussion in 'Maintenance Bay' started by Rob58, Aug 9, 2020.

  1. Rob58

    Rob58 Pre-takeoff checklist

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    The attached pictures show what I found when I pulled the wheels for some landing gear maintenance. Not sure if the wear marks on the bearing race are referred to as fretting or brinelling, but I would like to understand what the cause is – any ideas? These marks are deep enough to be felt when running my finger over the surface. I am planning to replace them but first I want to figure out how this happened. The entire airframe has only about 2000 hours total. I’m looking for other possible damage as well. Anyone know of a source for bearing race removal/installation tools? Feedback is much appreciated.


    Bearing Race-2.jpg Bearing Race-1.jpg
     
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  2. Tom-D

    Tom-D Taxi to Parking

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    Simple old electrolysis (corrosion) usually caused by no use.
    easy to replace.
    use a press or drift punch.
     
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  3. Let'sgoflying!

    Let'sgoflying! Touchdown! Greaser! PoA Supporter

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    Parked wet = corrosion.
    Do you fly in wet conditions or taxi through water to get to your parking spot?
     
  4. Rob58

    Rob58 Pre-takeoff checklist

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    Dave! I had no idea you were such an active contributor on POA - it's Rob here - you have been so helpful with all of your advice on my new to me Viking. These photos are from the Viking and based on my inspection of the airframe there is not much corrosion, but anything is possible. As you might recall the plane has been in PA for most of its life and it does get wet there. The idea of electrolysis makes sense since the plane has not seen much use in the past 15 years. Any idea where I can buy the tools needed to remove the bearing race? Dave, thanks so much for all of your help... I can say for sure that I love the 92 gal fuel. Flew a six hour Pilots-N-Paws mission last week and could not have done that with my other Bellancas. It changes the mission profile options in a very positive way. Going through the landing gear systems now to make sure everything is in good shape.
     
  5. Capt. Geoffrey Thorpe

    Capt. Geoffrey Thorpe Touchdown! Greaser! PoA Supporter

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    Hammer and drift punch can be bought purd near anywhere fine tools are sold.
     
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  6. Let'sgoflying!

    Let'sgoflying! Touchdown! Greaser! PoA Supporter

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    Hey Rob, glad to see you here; you are doing a great job on the Viking.
    I only say corrosion b/c your photos look exactly like what I had (I have to taxi through a large puddle sometimes at my airport :( )
    I didnt remove mine, someone else did it for me, years ago. They will likely be well-adhered to the wheel so go slow and avoid supporting with steel when hammering that out; Id think it would damage the backside of the wheel.
    No way to press them out I guess?
     
  7. mondtster

    mondtster En-Route

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    As others have noted, it’s corrosion due to the environmental conditions the aircraft was used/stored in. It doesn’t help that aircraft wheels typically only have felts to keep the grease in and the dirt/water out. In my personal experience maintaining aircraft it seems like the type of grease used may have influence on how much corrosion occurs as well.
     
  8. Capt. Geoffrey Thorpe

    Capt. Geoffrey Thorpe Touchdown! Greaser! PoA Supporter

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  9. Dan Thomas

    Dan Thomas Final Approach

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    Best way to take them out is to dismantle the wheel. There is a narrow ledge of the cup visible and it can be pressed out with the right mandrels, which a good shop will have. The new ones get pressed in. It can be done with a hammer and punch, preferably a brass drift so that the cup doesn't get staked on its edges, which can ruin it and cause premature bearing failure.

    That corrosion is often due to owners hosing the aircraft down while washing. The bearing seals are only made of felt and won't stop a jet of water from squirting some past the seal. Once the water's in there, it mixes with the oil in the grease and catalyzes into acids that eat the bearings. It can eat the wheel away from the inside, too.

    https://ftaelectronics.com/52pc-bea...tool-kit-bushing-bearing-hydraulic-press.html

    [​IMG]
     
  10. Capt. Geoffrey Thorpe

    Capt. Geoffrey Thorpe Touchdown! Greaser! PoA Supporter

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    Or, use the old bearing cup (thick end first) instead of a punch to install the new one.
     
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  11. Dan Thomas

    Dan Thomas Final Approach

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    Done that plenty, too, though I put the narrow edges together. The thick end often has a big radius that doesn't put the pressure on the thin end of the new cup. It puts it on the inner edge of that edge and can damage it. I took old cups of various sizes and slit them with a cutting disc so they wouldn't jam in the bore.
     
  12. Rob58

    Rob58 Pre-takeoff checklist

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    My wheels do in fact have the felt seals and your point about the deficiencies with the felt is certainly accurate. However I was able to obtain a copy of the latest Cleveland engineering drawing which now reflects a change away from the felt seals (drawing Rev G from 2011). The new design incorporates a rubber sealing feature like we find on most modern automotive grease seals - this change was probably motivated by the very corrosion problems mentioned by you guys. So I will change the bearing races and use the new seal design. Thanks for the reference to the bearing tool kit - on order!
     
  13. Dan Thomas

    Dan Thomas Final Approach

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    I have only ever found the new seals on nosewheels. The axle design on the mains won't accomodate it. The axle nut has to bear against the bearing itself, and a nitrile seal can't work that.

    Edit: Hold the bus. Just found this: https://www.aircraftspruce.com/catalog/lgpages/moldedgreaseseal.php
     
  14. Rob58

    Rob58 Pre-takeoff checklist

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    Yep, like I said this new design came out in 2011. I obtained the details directly from Parker/Cleveland.

    For the Cleveland wheels, assy 40-75 the grease seals are:
    -- 154-12000
    -- 154-12400
    Different part for the inner & outer seals according to the Cleveland drawings and parts list.
     
  15. unsafervguy

    unsafervguy Pattern Altitude

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    I use a chunk of pvc pipe with a press.
     
  16. Dan Thomas

    Dan Thomas Final Approach

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    I was in aircraft maintenance until I retired in 2018. I only saw the nitrile seals on the nosewheels and could not find any info on the mains, but that link I posted has them. They will be a lot better than the old felt seals, but that new seal still only seals between the wheel bore and the washer that the nut seats against; there is still a chance for water to be forced past the nut and washer interface and along the axle threads under the washer into the bearings. One should never hose water against the wheels, even with the new seals.

    The main wheel inboard seal will be a better affair, sealing between the wheel bore and the seal shoulder, just like a nosewheel seal.
     
  17. Rob58

    Rob58 Pre-takeoff checklist

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    Dan, your advice is certainly a good point... I will treat the wheels with a lot of care. Next, since I will have the wheels apart I'm going to go ahead and install new tires and tubes. I'm going to start a new thread for my tire questions. Thanks very much for all of the helpful replies!
     
  18. MuseChaser

    MuseChaser Pattern Altitude

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    Fwiw, I recently replaced all the bearings and races in my gear. A brass drift, a hammer, and a heat gun to gently warm the wheel before tapping the new races into place makes very quick work of it. Easy job, and no need for a press. An aside/word of caution...look carefully at the first photo in the original post. Near the valve stem you'll see what looks like stick figure seagull in flight. It might just be a scratch, but one of my wheels had something similar. Turned out to be a hairline crack and the wheel needed replacing. Check it carefully.
     
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  19. Rob58

    Rob58 Pre-takeoff checklist

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    Thanks very much for the observation and note of caution... I will examine this carefully!
     
  20. Dan Thomas

    Dan Thomas Final Approach

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    A good idea is to take a magnifier (I used to keep a pair of 4X reading glasses handy for this and other stuff) and a light and check the bead seat radius on the wheels. The tire's inflation pressure is constantly pushing outward on the wheel flange, and those wheels can crack in that radius. Hard landings can do it, too. Avoid prying the tire off with screwdrivers or crowbars. That area has been rolled to compress the metal and strengthen it, and any scratches weaken it a lot, leading to cracking. A bead breaker press does it properly.
     
  21. Lndwarrior

    Lndwarrior Line Up and Wait

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    One way to"find out how this happened" editor be to check the maintenance records. How often were the bearings greased during the 15 years "it wasn't flown much"?
     
  22. Rob58

    Rob58 Pre-takeoff checklist

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    Just to confirm... the wheel halves are magnesium, correct?
     
  23. Dan Thomas

    Dan Thomas Final Approach

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    Could be aluminum or magnesium. There are different torque settings for the bolts depending on the metal. Sometimes it's difficult to tell what alloy you're looking at.
    https://www.parker.com/literature/Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division/AWB Static Files for Literature/AWB Product Catalog Static Files/AWBCMM0001-12.pdf

    Appendix A gives the torque values and material type for the various wheel numbers. There might be a sticker on your wheels with that number. If not, the catalog might show what wheels wwent on your airplane when it was built: https://www.parker.com/literature/Aircraft Wheel & Brake Division/AWB Static Files for Literature/AWBPC0001.pdf
     
  24. Tom-D

    Tom-D Taxi to Parking

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    The test is. clean a spot then place a drop of Aldine on the bare spot. if it turns black it is Magnesium.
     
  25. Cap'n Jack

    Cap'n Jack Final Approach PoA Supporter

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    It's Bonderite now, and you should say which product works in this fashion.
     
  26. Dan Thomas

    Dan Thomas Final Approach

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    Wish I had known that. Handy.
     
  27. Tom-D

    Tom-D Taxi to Parking

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    If it doesn't turn black it is sompin else.
     
  28. Cap'n Jack

    Cap'n Jack Final Approach PoA Supporter

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  29. Tom-D

    Tom-D Taxi to Parking

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  30. baboss

    baboss Pre-takeoff checklist

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    Might as well order new bolts and nuts while you're at it. Cheap in the scheme of things and Cleveland recommends new bolts when you reassemble the wheel. Whenever I went that far I stripped and painted the wheel halves while I was there to get a good inspection.
     
  31. Tom-D

    Tom-D Taxi to Parking

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    Be careful on how you do this, you can set up a process that will cause corrosion.
     
  32. Rob58

    Rob58 Pre-takeoff checklist

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    All great advice, which I am taking heed of! Back to the comment from eagle eye the MuseChaser concerning a possible crack. Will a dye penetrant inspection process be appropriate regardless of whether the wheels are aluminum or magnesium (a test which I will perform using the Alodine method!)? I'm not sure if dye penetrant works on cast parts such as the wheel halves??? And yes, new bolts are planned. Thanks again!
     
  33. Tom-D

    Tom-D Taxi to Parking

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    It will when done correctly.
    Never bead blast any part that you want to use dye penetrate, the beads will actually peen the crack closed.

    And, when cleaning with glass beads, use new glass beads, dirty beads will contaminate the Mag and set up corrosion.
     
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  34. GLDP

    GLDP Pre-Flight

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    FWIW I’ve had the molded grease seals installed on the mains and nose since they first came out. Aircraft was parked outside 100% of the time and while the grease seals were better than the felts periods of disuse during the rainy winter months still caused the cups and cones to corrode like the pictures above. After trying the various recommended greases such as Aeroshell and Mobil SHC100 and changed a ton of bearings due to corrosion I now use TRC 880 Crown and Chassis grease.

    Since the plane was outside wind and the rocking of the plane caused corrosion on the bottom areas of the cups where the weight is. Once some moisture gets in there the Aeroshell and Mobile turned to brown goo. I haven’t yet found that problem with the TRC.
     
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  35. Cap'n Jack

    Cap'n Jack Final Approach PoA Supporter

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  36. Cap'n Jack

    Cap'n Jack Final Approach PoA Supporter

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    Suggest you read the instructions on the alodine and see if it works. There are several types of Alodine used for planes. Some will work for that test, and give you the data you need, and some won't.
    See: https://www.pilotsofamerica.com/community/threads/alodine-or-no-alodine.118147/